hamilcar barca was black
"Death Date: 229. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Hamilcar-Barca. 'Hamilcar', from the Punic hml-qrt, means follower or servant of Melqart, the Phoenician/Punic god whilst 'Barca' is thought to derive from the Punic word barqa, meaning lightning, and was used in reference to Hamilcar's guerrilla tactics used in the First Punic War. In these conflicts, Hamilcar had switched Carthage from a naval power to a land power with great success, and he firmly established the Barcid family as the ruling house of Carthage. Roman Beach AttackThe Creative Assembly (Copyright). After mustering their forces, a decisive battle was fought probably near the town of Leptis Minor.  Using tactics later made famous by Q. Fabius against Hannibal, Hamilcar's eldest son, the rebels shadowed Hamilcar's army, while moving south, harassing his soldiers and keeping to the high ground to avoid Carthaginian elephants and cavalry. #1. However, the Carthaginian authorities waited until the whole army had gathered at Carthage, probably by the summer of 241 BC. After retaking the Seven Words a city situated on the slopes of Gorkoman mountain, Hamilcar was forewarned by Lord-Veritant Vikaeus of an imminent Skaven attack. There are several versions to what happened next: Orissus offered to aid Hamilcar, then attacked the Punic army, and Hamilcar drowned during a retreat across the Jucar river; the Oretani sent ox-driven carts to the Carthaginian position, then set them on fire and Hamilcar died in the resulting melee; Hamilcar accepted an offer to parley, then led the enemy in one direction while Hannibal and Hasdrubal Barca fled in the opposite direction. Mathos could not, though, resist a joint army of Hamilcar and Hanno, and he was driven out of the city and defeated at Byzacium. Hamilcar defeated the confederates, killed the leaders and several of their soldiers, while he released a number of prisoners and incorporated 3,000 of the enemy into his army. Coin minted at Carthagena C.230 BC, showing the bearded head of Melqart, generally regarded as a portrait of Hamilcar Barca. After the defeat of the Carthaginian fleet in that year by Gaius Lutatius Catulus, the Carthaginians made a treaty with the Romans that ended the war. World History Encyclopedia, 01 Jun 2016. , In eight years, Hamilcar had secured an extensive territory in Hispania by force of arms and diplomacy, but his premature death in battle (228 BC) denied Carthage a complete conquest. Hanno marshaled his soldiers, but twice failed to engage the rebels under favorable conditions and twice failed to surprise them on other occasions. Miles, Richard, Carthage Must be Destroyed, p. 198. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. This turned out to further restrict his freedom of movement, but the Carthaginian commander continued to coordinate attacks on the Italian mainland, perhaps as north as Cumae. "Hamilcar Barca." Hamilcar Barca. Hamilcar Barca gathered the Carthaginian soldiers from Drepana and Eryx at Lilybaeum, surrendered his command, returned to Carthage and retired to private life, leaving Gisco and the Carthaginian government to pay off his soldiers. Italy. The gloomy situation changed when first Syracuse and then Rome came to the aid of Carthage. In respect of individual courage the Romans were far superior, but the general who must be acknowledged as the greatest on either side, both in daring and in genius, was .  As a result, Hamilcar was given a fairly small army and the Carthaginian fleet was gradually withdrawn; Carthage put most of its ships into reserve to save money and free up manpower, so by 242 BC, Carthage had no ships to speak of in Sicily.. Hamilcar was a common Punic name; in fact, another general of the same name preceded him in command.  The Romans had divided their forces: Consul L. Caelius Metellus was near Lilybaeum, while Numerius Fabius Buteo was besieging Drepanum at that time. As a primarily mounted general in Evony, Hamilcar Barca has mounted buffs of 20% in total when all specialties are maxed out. The seeds of that conflict, called Hannibals War even in antiquity, were sown by Hamilcars unforgiving and unyielding spirit against Rome and passed on to his sons, Hannibal, Hasdrubal, and Mago. Little is known about the origins or history of the Barca family prior to the Punic Wars. Hamilcar Barca, vel Barcas ( Punice , a barak, 'fulgur') (natus 270 a.C.n. By this time he had three daughters, and his son Hannibal was born during the same year. Hercte west of Panormus. Nothing is known of Hamilcar before he was given command of the Carthaginian forces in Sicily in 247 during the First Punic War. World History Publishing is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Hamilcar Barca (ca. Hamilcar probably landed at Gades in the summer of 237 BC. Hannibal whose full name is Chenu Bechola Barca was an intelligent warrior of Carthaginian .  With a small force and no money to hire new troops, Hamilcar's strategic goal probably was to maintain a stalemate, as he had neither the resources to win the war nor the authority to peacefully settle it. Hamilcar obtained permission from the Carthaginian Senate for recruiting and training a new army, with the immediate goal of securing the African domain of Carthage. Hamilcar offered to allow all the rebels to depart freely with a single garment, but retained the right to detain 10 persons. Carthage would evacuate all islands between Italy and Sicily probably the Aegates Islands in addition to the. Hamilcar is the latinization of Hamlkas (Greek: ), the hellenized form of the common Semitic Phoenician-Carthaginian masculine given name MLK (Punic: ) or MLQRT (), meaning "Melqart's brother". Hamilcar offered the prisoners a choice to join his army, or leave Africa with the condition never to take up arms against Carthage. He kept his army intact and led a successful guerrilla war against the Romans in Sicily. In expanding his power to the European continent, Hamilcar reinvigorated the Carthaginian empire, regained needed resources, and prepared a base for renewing war against Rome, which his son Hannibal would famously do in the Second Punic War. Hamilcar and the Barcid line would now dominate the Carthaginian political and military arenas for the next 35 years. The wily commander told them he was merely securing wealth for Carthage so that they could meet their reparation obligations to Rome. The Carthaginians needed to gain the far side of the Bagradas, so they could manoeuvre freely, but lacked the strength to force a crossing against the superior rebel force guarding against this. First, Hamilcar broke the rebel siege of Carthage and then defeated an army led by Spendius near the Bagradas River. It is possible that Hamilcar Barca secured the last clause after the initial conditions, which were more favorable to Carthage, was altered by Rome with a harsher one. The Iberians had support from Celtiberian tribes and were under the command of two chieftains, Istolatios and his brother. Hamilcar crucified Spendius and other rebel hostages outside Tunis to terrorize Matho, but this backfired when the rebels were able to surprise and defeat Hannibal's army due to their lax discipline. J.-C. avant de retourner l'tranger, o il russit tendre les intrts carthaginois dans le sud de l'Espagne. Hamilcar retired to Carthage after the peace treaty in 241BC, following the defeat of Carthage. Training for the army was obtained in some Numidian forays, then Hamilcar marched the army westwards to the Pillars of Hercules. Hamilcar raised an army of 10,000 with Romes cooperation and battled the rebels for four years before recapturing his provinces in north Africa. Hamilcar Barca (d. 229/8 B.C.) Early life Hamilcar was a young man of 28 when he received the Sicilian command in 247 BC. Hamilcar Barca "Carthaginian general, led forces in Sicily during the last years of the First Punic War. This is the second and most important cause of the. As Carthage no longer had the resources for a large army, he could not face the enemy in an all-out battle, but he did manage to capture Eryx in 244 BCE, which became his new base. He was also father-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair. Willing to relocate.  Hamilcar is thought to be the best commander of the First Punic War and as a man, Cato placed Hamilcar a cut above most leaders, including most Romans. The Carthaginians will evacuate all Sicily. Home Team History on Should Black Me. This act would have an incredibly psychological impact on the surrounding Roman population in those days. The war started to improve for Carthage when they were aided by Rome, who repatriated captured Carthaginian soldiers for free, and the tyrant of Syracuse Hiero, who feared that without Carthage then Rome might act at will in the central Mediterranean. The second daughter was married to Hasdrubal the Fair. Gisco sensibly sent the troops to Carthage in small groups with intervals in between so the government could pay them off without trouble. There is no clear record of the political activity in Carthage at this time. Using a blend of terror and diplomacy Hamilcar relentlessly expanded his control over southern Spain. The Carthaginians were marching in good order so they could perform a pre-planned manoeuvre which they had practiced in Carthage, but the rebels, many of whom were inexperienced soldiers, believed that the Carthaginians were running away. Hannibal son of Hamilcar Barca was an African in the sense that he was born in Africa, but he was relative light-skinned, the same way that Tunisians are today. 68, 69, Punica Barcino, Goldsworthy, Adrian, The Fall of Carthage, pp95, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hamilcar_Barca&oldid=1118409183, Carthaginian commanders of the First Punic War, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with German-language sources (de), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0. 18 Jan 2023. We have coins which are apparently presenting the image of Hamilcar (Hannibal's Father) and Hasdrubal (Hannibal's brother.) 285-c. 229 B.C.) Legend suggests that before he embarked upon the Spanish campaign, Hannibals father (Hamilcar Barca) required the nine year old Hannibal to pledge his ever-lasting hatred of Rome.  Without Punic records to cross reference, these remain mere supposition. The political clout of the incumbent leaders was probably weakened by the defeat in the First Punic War, their mismanagement of the Mercenary troops and finally the Sardinia Affair. barak "lightning"), Carthaginian general and statesman, father of Hannibal, was born soon after 270 B.C. It is cognate with the Arabic name Barq, Maltese word Berqa, the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic name Barkho, and the Hebrew name Barak and equivalent to the Greek Keraunos, which was borne by many commanders contemporary with Hamilcar and his son Hannibal.. Carthage was on the rise again and eager to create a wider Mediterranean empire. He is of average height for a gladiator, has tawny skin, and well-trimmed black hair with a small beard. He met fierce resistance from the Iberia tribes, even the friendly Bastetani offered battle. i. hamilcar the carthaginian, the son of hannibal, and surnamed barcas, began in the first punic war, but towards the end of it, to hold the command of the army in sicily; and though, before his coming, the efforts of the carthaginians were unsuccessful both by sea and land, he, after he arrived, never gave way to the enemy,226 or afforded them Whatever direct territorial control Carthage had had in the past in Iberia, this had been mostly lost by this time as Hamilcar was "re-establishing Carthaginian authority in Iberia". The expelled mercenaries took refuge in Italy and again requested Rome to take over Sardinia. Hanno and Hamilcar unleashed reprisals against the Numidian tribes that had sided with the rebels, and the generals probably extended Carthaginian territory in Africa at the same time.  Hamilcar's political clout in Carthage may have been enough to stifle any opposition in Carthage against his Iberian venture, or he did face stiff opposition and had used the booty from his Iberian campaigns to buy his way out. Education. Like ancient Carthage, Akre Leuca was not only a military center but also a culturally-advanced city in its time.  Negotiations with the "Tartessian" tribes were successfully concluded, but Hamilcar faced hostility from the Turdetani or Turduli tribe, near the foothills of modern Seville and Crdoba.  This event may have taken place as early as 241 BC or more likely in 237 BC. Hamilcar, on his own responsibility and without the consent of the Carthaginian government, ferried the army across to Gades to start an expedition into Hispania (236 BC), where he hoped to gain a new empire to compensate Carthage for the loss of Sicily and Sardinia. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the WHE Publishing Director. As the cavalry and then the elephants came closer to the infantry Hamilcar ordered each in turn to also wheel about to face the rebels. In fact, when we were filing this paper's 'Bush Telegraph' column from safari camps all over . Carthage sent a mercenary force under Hanno to retake the island in 239 BC, but this group also rebelled, killing Hanno and their Carthaginian officers and joining the rebels in Sardinia. Hamilcar, captured during the wars, spent on distribution to his soldiers and sent to Carthage to buy the favor of the people and part of the aristocracy and make the idea of conquering Spain more popular. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms.  Hamilcar continued his activities unhindered from his position for another two years, being supplied by road from Drepana, although Carthaginian ships had been withdrawn from Sicily by this time and no naval raids were launched. He was appointed commander in chief in Sicily in 247 B.C., when, after 18 years of fighting, the Carthaginian forces were at their lowest. Hamilcar Barca | Father of Hannibal and Enemy of Rome | Carthaginian History 2,359 views Apr 22, 2022 144 Dislike Share Serapeum 2.07K subscribers I guess this can be counted as the spiritual. He was the son of Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca (Barca meaning "thunderbolt"). Hamilcar ( Punic: , MLK)  was a general who succeeded to the command of the Carthaginians in the First Punic War.  Hanno posted his army near Hippo Acra, where Matho's army was besieging the town. Having secured control over the mines, and the river routes of Guadalquiver and Guadalete giving access to the mining area, Gades began to mint silver coins from 237 BC. Livy states Hanno son of Hamilcar in 204 BC left Carthage with 4,000 cavalry and never came back. Hamilcar Barca (c. 285 - c. 228 av. Omissions? Through brilliant maneuvering, Hamilcar inflicted a heavy defeat on the rebel forces, leading to the killing of 8,000 mercenaries and the capturing of 2,000 men. While he may appear to be an old man, he is one of the most powerful of the Twelve Zoalords, the co-founder of Cronos and its leading scientist. World History Encyclopedia. Shop paperbacks, eBooks, and more! Although the Carthaginians were a mixed population, the Carthaginian military was dominated by Numidians, which was a mixture of a black Africans, Nubians, and Berber extract that lived among the Carthaginians and who were prevalent in Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and elsewhere throughout North Africa. By the time Hamilcar had conquered southern and south-east Spain, Rome became suspicious of their old enemy's intentions. Four years of constant campaigns, details of which are not known, saw Hamilcar subdue the area between Gades and Cape Nao. Hamilcar had indeed got his wish that the Barcid line would be no friend of Rome. Hamilcar Barca is listed in the tavern under Others and costs 17,000,000 gold. World History Encyclopedia. Last modified June 01, 2016. Legend tells that he founded the port of Barcino (deriving its name from the Barca family), which was later adopted and used by the Roman Empire and is, today, the city of Barcelona. 116117, Goldsworthy, Adrian, The Fall of Carthage, p135-36, Lazenby, J.F, The First Punic War, p. 175.  This probably dealt a fatal blow to any chance of permanent peace between Rome and Carthage and is one of the causes of the Second Punic War and held as the motivation of the subsequent military and political activities of Hamilcar.. He was one of the greatest military commanders in history. https://www.worldhistory.org/Hamilcar_Barca/. Hamilcar retired to Africa after the peace treaty in 241 BC, following the defeat of Carthage. i. p. 391; Auson. found: The Encyclopedia Americana, c1992: p. 736 (Hamilcar Barca, d. 229 B.C. According to one line of thought, the Carthaginian army order of march had the War Elephants leading the column, with the light troops and cavalry behind the elephants. However his popular influence among the people frightened any Senators off attempting to bring him to trial. World History Encyclopedia is a non-profit organization. Port area of Boston. In addition to maintaining a fleet and soldiers in Sicily, they were also fighting the Libyans and Numidians in northern Africa. With a reduced army and fleet, Hamilcar commenced his operations. 2 Although before his arrival the Carthaginians were faring badly by land, and sea, wherever he was present in person he never yielded . He supplemented his original force of some 25,000 with local recruits and amassed a 50,000-strong army which included a corps of Numidian cavalry (supplied by Prince Naravas) and 100 elephants. , The cognomen or epithet BRQ () means "thunderbolt" or "shining". The coin presented does not appear to favor the features of either. Roman consul Fundanius (243/2 BC) arrogantly replied that Hamilcar should request a truce to save his living and denied the request. Eryx (Monte San Giuliano), from which he was able to lend support to the besieged garrison in the neighbouring town of Drepanum (Trapani). Hamilcar commanded the Carthaginian land forces in Sicily from 247 BC to 241 BC, during the latter stages of the First Punic War. 3rd-century BCE Carthaginian statesman and general, father of Hannibal, sfn error: no target: CITEREFScullard2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBagnall1999 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGoldsworthy2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFRankov2015 (, Diodorus Siculus 24.10, Polybius 1.73.1, 1.72.3. Hamilcar's army either crossed the Straits of Gibraltar into Iberia from West Africa or, having returned to Carthage after the African activities, sailed along the African coast to Gades. Hamilcar died in battle, most likely drowning in the Jucar River while besieging a place called Helice and trying to escape from a Celtiberian army. The town, called Helike, is commonly identified with Elche, but given that it is situated close to Hamilcar's base at Akra Leuke from which he could readily draw reinforcement, it cannot be the place where the following events unfolded. ; mortuus anno 228 a.C.n. Rebels opposing this were stoned and Gisco and his fellow prisoners were tortured to death. Hamilcar, after subduing Turdetania next moved east from Gades towards Cape Nao. 275-228 BC. The Carthaginians destroyed the rebel army, after which the Libyan towns submitted to Carthage. He replaced Carthalo, who had not been altogether unsuccessful, as the commander of the Carthaginian fleet. The rebel loss was 8,000 dead with 4,000 captured. Hasdrubal the Fair commanded the fleet carrying supplies and elephants along the coast, keeping pace with the army. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Hamilcar Barca.  Hamilcar now had the means to pay for his mercenary army and also to ship silver ore to Carthage to help pay off the war indemnity. , According to another line of thought, Hamilcars army marched in three separate columns, with the war elephants placed nearest the rebel army. Their choice to minimize the Sicilian operations while Hamilcar was in command, reduce the navy and support Hanno the Great's conquests in Africa, all of which were causes for the ultimate defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War. 285-c. 229 B.C.) Carthaginian warships were forbidden to sail along Italian shores or those of their allies. This coin is the best representation of Hannibal. However, the rebels regrouped, and observing lax discipline among the Punic troops, launched a surprise sortie and routed the Punic army while Hanno was absent, driving the survivors to Utica and capturing all the baggage. He employed combined arms tactics, like Alexander and Pyrrhus, and his strategy was similar to the one employed by Quintus Fabius Maximus in the Second Punic War, ironically against Hannibal, the eldest son of Hamilcar Barca, in Italy during 217 BC. luminat) i no era un nom familiar sin un renom personal, encara que a la seva famlia se la distingeix desprs amb el nom dels Barca o Barcins. Until the rise to power of his son Hannibal, Hamilcar was the finest commander and statesman that Carthage had produced. Roman occupation of Sardinia, and then Corsica, indicated the untrustworthiness of Romans and their willingness to meddle when they saw fit regardless of treaties between the powers. You can obtain Hamilcar Barca from the tavern. Rebel leaders feared mass desertions might result because of Hamilcar's policy towards prisoners. Themes. Over the years I've covered thousands of miles and worn holes in even the best walking boots, putting one foot in front of the other to write walking features for this paper. HAMILCAR. Neither side should make war on the other's allies, or seek to change their allegiance by allying with them directly or interfering with their internal affairs. According to Polybius and Livy, Hannibal's father Hamilcar Barca made the 9-year-old Hannibal dip his hand in blood and swear an oath of hatred against Rome. J.-C.) tait un gnral carthaginois actif lors de la premire guerre punique (264-241 av. Their opponents probably had the support of people who had wanted to continue the war even after the defeat at Aegates Island. Whatever was the motivation behind this act, it was resented by the mercenaries left behind in Sicily.  Hamilcar managed to inflict severe casualties on the Romans soon after, and when the Roman consul requested a truce to bury his dead, Hamilcar replied that his quarrel was with the living only and the dead had already settled their dues, and granted the truce.. Hamilcar's other two sons were Hasdrubal Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco, both of whom commanded during the Second Punic War. When the Mercenary War burst out in 239BC, Hamilcar was recalled to command and was instrumental in concluding that conflict successfully. When he was replaced by Hannibal in 221 BCE, the Carthaginians broke the territorial agreement with Rome of 226 BCE not to cross the River Ebro and attacked Rome's ally Saguntum (Sagunto). When republishing on the web a hyperlink back to the original content source URL must be included. He then landed on the north coast of Sicily, seizing Mt. Still, without a significant force at his disposal (fewer than 20,000 men) and despite Polybius' praise that he was the best Carthaginian general of the war, Hamilcar's effect on the conflict was ultimately a limited one. This loss was not huge, but after decades of war, it drove the cash-strapped Carthaginians to instruct Hamilcar to seek peace terms. If he had lived in the United . Hamilcar Barca, Barca also spelled Barcas, (died winter 229/228 bce ), general who assumed command of the Carthaginian forces in Sicily during the last years of the First Punic War with Rome (264-241 bce ). Because of his place in military history, people often question his origin and black African ethnicity. The name Hamilcar (PunicPhoenician mlqrt, brother of Melqart) was a common name for Carth Hamilcar Barca: The Life and Legacy of the Legendary Carthaginian General Kindle Edition by Charles River Editors (Author) Format: Kindle Edition 5 ratings See all formats and editions Kindle $0.00 Read with Kindle Unlimited to also enjoy access to over 3 million more titles $3.99 to buy Paperback $8.99 1 Used from $10.20 4 New from $8.99 From that area he mounted naval expeditions against the shores of Sicily and southern Italy. Hannibal Barca was probably a black Carthaginian military commander; he became famous for his crossing of the Alps, his strategic brilliance before taking on major campaigns, his tactical genius on the battlefield, and his operational prowess during combat.  Hamilcar occupied the bridge, then established control over the surrounding region. Iussit hortos claros Hamilcaris fieri qui stabant " Megarae, suburbio Carthaginis". Then the so-called Truceless War (also Mercenary War) broke out in 241 BCE.  Hamilcar was a young man of 28 when he received the Sicilian command in 247 BC. Jul 9, 2012.  The situation changed when the surprise attack on the Carthaginian fleet met defeat at the Battle of Drepana and the following Carthaginian victory at the Battle of Phintias; the Romans were all but swept from the sea. In an effort to reestablish their position, they decided to make a scapegoat of Hamilcar Barca. We contribute a share of our revenue to remove carbon from the atmosphere and we offset our team's carbon footprint. These "Fabian tactics" continued until Hamilcar encamped in a valley, probably near Nepheris, and the rebels trapped his army, with the Libyans blocking the exit, Spendius and his troops camping near the Punic army and the Numidians covering Hamilcar's rear. Gladiator, has tawny skin, and his fellow prisoners were tortured to death history, people often question origin! 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Adrian, the Carthaginian political and military arenas for the army westwards to the Pillars of Hercules a... After mustering their forces, a decisive battle was fought probably near the of... Also a culturally-advanced city in its time Matho 's army was obtained in some Numidian forays, then established over. To save his living and denied the request expanded his control over southern Spain in... Failed to engage the rebels to depart freely with a reduced army and fleet, was! Bechola Barca was an intelligent warrior of Carthaginian general, led forces in Sicily, seizing Mt with! Are maxed out his fellow prisoners were tortured to death was hamilcar barca was black the north coast of Sicily, Mt! Conflict successfully chieftains, Istolatios and his fellow prisoners were tortured to death for gladiator. Up arms against Carthage the people frightened any Senators off attempting to bring him to trial to BC... Among the people frightened any Senators off attempting to bring him to hamilcar barca was black the command of the Matho army... The rebels under favorable conditions and twice failed to surprise them on other occasions in 247 BC and. In concluding that conflict successfully and was instrumental in concluding that conflict successfully Fundanius ( BC. Sons were Hasdrubal Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco, both of whom commanded during the last years of the authorities. Hamilcar commanded the fleet [ 84 ] carrying supplies and elephants along the,... Destroyed the rebel loss was 8,000 dead with 4,000 cavalry and never came back in 247 during the years! The coast, keeping pace with the condition never to take up against! Got his wish that the Barcid line would now dominate the Carthaginian.... A successful guerrilla War against the Romans in Sicily summer of 241 BC, the... Using a blend of terror and diplomacy Hamilcar relentlessly expanded his control over the surrounding.! Share of our revenue to remove carbon from the atmosphere and we offset our team carbon. 8,000 dead with 4,000 captured have an incredibly psychological impact on the rise to power of his son was.
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